Source: Saudi Arabian Y-Chromosome diversity and its relationship with nearby regions (BMC Genomic Data) 2009 A.D.
From the source, “Saudi Arabia differentiates from other Arabian Peninsula countries by a higher presence of J2-M172 lineages. It is significantly different from Yemen mainly due to a comparative reduction of sub-Saharan Africa E1-M123 and Levantine J1-M267 male lineages. Around 14% of the Saudi Arabia Y-chromosome pool is typical of African biogeographic ancestry, 17% arrived to the area from the East across Iran, while the remainder 69% could be considered of direct or indirect Levantine ascription. Interestingly, basal E-M96* (n = 2) and J-M304* (n = 3) lineages have been detected, for the first time, in the Arabian Peninsula. Coalescence time for the most prominent J1-M267 haplogroup in Saudi Arabia (11.6 ± 1.9 ky) is similar to that obtained previously for Yemen (11.3 ± 2) but significantly older that those estimated for Qatar (7.3 ± 1.8) and UAE (6.8 ± 1.5). The Y-chromosome genetic structure of the Arabian Peninsula seems to be mainly modulated by geography. The data confirm that this area has mainly been a recipient of gene flow from its African and Asian surrounding areas, probably mainly since the last Glacial maximum onwards. Although rare deep rooting lineages for Y-chromosome haplogroups E and J have been detected, the presence of more basal clades supportive of the southern exit route of modern humans to Eurasian, were not found….However, its frequency rises considerably in some populations, most probable because of isolation and genetic drift effects. This would explain frequencies as high as 11% found in some Ethiopian samples  or the highest (31%) found, until now, in the Dead Sea region of Jordan (Flores et al. 2005). In the Arabian Peninsula this clade is, in general, well represented but reaches significant higher frequencies in the southern countries of Yemen and Oman compared with northern areas. An East African origin, and posterior spread to the Near East through the Levantine corridor, of this lineage was proposed based on the much larger variance of this clade in Egypt (0.5) versus Oman (0.14) . On the contrary, other authors have suggested that E1-M123 may have originated in the Near East because of its generalized implantation there  compared to its presence in Eastern Africa, mainly just localized in Ethiopia . Recent E-M123 haplogroup variances calculated for Yemen (0.14) and UAE (0.25) were also lower than the Egyptian one . In addition, haplotypic differences found for those two Arabian countries indicated that they do not share a common ancestry . So, from an Arabian Peninsula perspective, E1-M123 could have come from Ethiopia, across the Horn of Africa, or from the Levant, or even from both sources, forming independent isolates. Global male inputs from Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia across Iran, not the Levant, into the Arabian Peninsula have been estimated in this study, as 13.4% and 16.6% from both source areas respectively. Recent mtDNA studies on the same Arabian Peninsula countries [7–9, 12] have confirmed a notable female-driven sub-Saharan African input with a mean value around 15% for all the Peninsula, although frequencies as high as 60% have been detected in Hadramawt populations of Yemen . Curiously, the Iranian female flow (18%) was also rather similar to that calculated for Africa. Although a slight ratio excess of Sub-Saharan African female versus male gene flow is detected (1.12) we do not found the strong sexual bias proposed by other authors for Arabian populations and attributed to the peculiarities of the recent slave-trade [12, 36]. Without dismissing the role mediated by slavery, the geographical distribution of these sub-Saharan African lineages in the Arabian Peninsula seems to indicate a prehistoric entrance of a noticeable portion of these lineages that participated in the building of the primitive Arabian population [8, 9]. The presence of two underived E-M96 Saudi lineages raises interesting questions related to the macrohaplogroup DE-YAP phylogeography….The Y-chromosome genetic structure of the Arabian Peninsula seems to be mainly modulated by geography. The data confirm that this area has mainly been a recipient of gene flow from its African and Asian surrounding areas, probably mainly since the last Glacial maximum onwards. Although rare deep rooting lineages for Y chromosome haplogroups E and J have been detected, the presence of more basal clades supportive of the southern exit route of modern humans to Eurasian, were not found.”