Sub-Saharan DNA Related to Phoenicians

Source: Population history of the Sardinian people inferred from whole-genome sequencing (bioRxiv) 2016 A.D.

From the source, “The ADMIXTURE and PCA analyses above (Figure 4) suggest that Sardinian samples, such as those outside of Ogliastra, may show some evidence of admixture with mainland sources, consistent with previous reports (Moorjani et al. 2011, Loh et al. 2013, Hellenthal et al. 2014). For example, Cagliari individuals demonstrated ~7% of a non-Sardinian (“purple”) component that is found in substantial fraction among extant individuals from Southern Europe, Middle East, Caucasus, and North Africa. To assess this in detail we used the f3-test for admixture (Patterson et al. 2012) and found none of the Sardinian populations showed any evidence of admixture. In contrast, mainland Europeans, particularly Southern Europeans, show evidence of admixture from Near East and sub-Saharan Africa (Figure S8). Because f3-based tests for admixture may lose power when applied to populations that have experienced extensive drift post-admixture (Patterson et al. 2012), we also used a complementary LD-based approach (ALDER, Loh et al. 2013) to test each Sardinian population for admixture. Using this approach, a number of Sardinian populations, particularly those outside of Ogliastra, are inferred to be admixed (Table 1, Table S4). The inferred source populations are typically a mainland Eurasian population and a sub-Saharan African population. The admixture proportions range from 0.9% to 4% of sub-Saharan ancestry by the f4 ratio test (Patterson et al. 2012) (Table 1, Table S4) with estimated admixture dates of approximately 59-109 generationsWe also examined possible sources of African admixture to Sardinia. Prior to our studies, there have been reports based on the HGDP Sardinians of a minor proportion (0.6% to 2.9%) of sub-Saharan admixture (Moorjani et al. 2011, Loh et al. 2013) and a multi-way admixture involving an African source (Hellenthal et al. 2014). In light of the close geographical proximity of Sardinia and North Africa, as well as the substantial admixture proportion from North Africa in Southern Europe (Botigue et al. 2013), we tested for admixture using modern North African reference populations included in the Human Origins Array data (Tunisia, Algeria, Mozabite, Egypt, and Saharawi), and found the best proxy for African admixture is sub-Saharan African populations, rather than Mediterranean North African populations, and we inferred the date of admixture as approximately 1,800-3,000 years ago (assuming 30 years per generation). The lack of a strong signal of North African autosomal admixture may be due to inadequate coverage of modern North African diversity in our reference sample. Alternatively, it may be due to a poor representation of ancestral North Africans. Present-day North African ancestry reflects large-scale recent gene flow during the Arab expansion (~1,400 years ago (Henn et al. 2012)). The sub-Saharan African admixture observed in the non-Ogliastra samples could be mediated through an early influx of migrants from North Africa prior to the Arab expansion, for example during the eras of trade relations and occupations from the Phoenicians, Carthaginians, and Romans (~700 B.C.- ~200 B.C.; (Dyson and Rowland 2007)).

This source could be used to confirm the black presence through DNA that existed amongst the ancient Phoenicians.

By Black History In The Bible

"And because I tell you the truth, ye believe me not. Which of you convinceth me of sin? And if I say the truth, why do ye not believe me? He that is of God heareth God's words: ye therefore hear them not, because ye are not of God." - John 8:45-47

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