Source: Medieval Identity Machines (University of Minnesota) 2003 A.D - pg. 277 Note: Page 277 of the Medieval Identity Machines. "In general, however, Saracens and Jews were the groups most susceptible to representation as swarthy, "Ethiopian," or black-skinned." The book Medieval Identity Machines was published in 2003. The beginning of page 277 of this book tells us that in the medieval ages, Jews being depicted as "swarthy", "Ethiopian", or "black-skinned" was used to signify race more than class which once again shows that Jews were literally seen as being black.