From the Queen of Sheba source, “The Queen of Sheba, (tenth century B.C.E.), also known as Makeda (Ethiopian), Nicaula (Roman), and Bilquis (Arabic), was the ruler of an ancient kingdom located in the areas called Ethiopia and Yemen today…The tradition that the Biblical Queen of Sheba was a ruler of Ethiopia who visited King Solomon in Jerusalem, in ancient Israel, is supported by the first century C.E. (of Jewish origin) historian Flavius Josephus, who identified Solomon’s visitor as a “Queen of Egypt and Ethiopia…Other Ethiopian accounts make her the daughter of a king named Agabo or Agabos, in some legends said to have become king after slaying the mythological serpent Arwe; in others, to have been the 28th ruler of the Agazyan tribe. In either event, he is said to have extended his Empire to both sides of the Red Sea…Boccaccio’s On Famous Women (De Mulieribus Claris) follows Josephus in calling the Queen of Sheba, Nicaula. Boccaccio goes on to explain that not only was she the Queen of Ethiopia and Egypt, but also the queen of Arabia. She is related to have had a grand palace on “a very large island” called Meroe, located someplace near the Nile river, “practically on the other side of the world.” From there, Nicaula crossed the deserts of Arabia, through Ethiopia and Egypt, and up the the coast of the Red Sea, to come to Jerusalem to see “the great King Solomon.”…the earliest inscriptions of the rulers of Dʿmt in northern Ethiopia and Eritrea mention queens of very high status, possibly equal to their kings. …The tradition of the Candaces is well documented in Nubia, where the rule of its many queens recedes into prehistoric times. The Kentakes is a term used to describe the long tradition of leadership in Nubia by warrior queens. Nubia was south of Ancient Egypt, also divided by the Nile River and bordered by the Red Sea. It is another candidate for the location of Sheba and the famous queen. The history of Nubia provides examples of a tradition and a wealthy kingdom that could be the original kingdom of the Queen of Sheba…Recent archaeological discoveries in the Mahram Bilqis (Mahram Bilkees, “Temple of the Moon Deity”) in Mareb, Yemen, support the view that the Queen Sheba ruled over southern Arabia, with evidence suggesting the area to be the capital of the Kingdom of Sheba.”
This source paints a picture of how vast the reach and empire of the Ethiopian people were because their influence was on both sides of the Red Sea. At one point, their kingdom stretched from East Africa (Ethiopia was called Abyssinia for centuries) to Southern Arabia (Yemen). These sources help to paint the picture that the ancient Middle East was highly peopled with black peoples. This post also supports the idea that Egypt and Ethiopia had a clear racial continuum for thousands of years.